Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Is 1828 really the start of Assisted Immigration to NSW?

If  were to ask you when Assisted Immigration to NSW began you'd probably answer 1828. And a couple of months ago, so would I. But now I'm starting to wonder whether that date is wrong.

True, the NSW State Archives and Records website includes digitised copies of what it describes as "Assisted Immigrants Shipping List 1828-1896" and also a link to the "Bounty Immigrants Index 1828-1842". I'll talk more about these later on.

These are the facts I have been able to gather:

The Secretary of State (Viscount Goderich) developed a scheme in 1831, which was put into place in 1832, to send unmarried women and skilled mechanics (by which is meant tradesmen) and their families to New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. The scheme was to be administered by the Commissioners of Emigration in London, Dublin and Cork. All people sent out were said to have been vetted and supplied testimonials. The initial suggestion was that the scheme be funded by a tax on assigned servants, though the colony rejected this and instead used funds from the sale of Crown Lands. The women would receive a bounty of £8 (about half the cost) towards their passage. They were expected to pay the difference themselves. Men did not receive a bounty, but were given a £20 advance towards the passage for them and their families.

The first two ships to arrive in 1832 were the Princess Royal, carrying single women from England, and the Red Rover, carrying Irish single women. A further fourteen ships arrived carrying single women. The selection of these women had been overseen by John Marshall, a shipowner who acted as an agent. As he received money for each emigrant on the ships, he had a vested interest in making sure the ships were full. The colonists claimed that many of these women were prostitutes, had no ability as domestic or farm servants, and that many of them had a disability or disease. The number of mechanics that came out was small.

In 1835 Governor Bourke suggested an alternate system. Two schemes would co-exist. Colonists who could fund the transport of immigrants of whose skills they were in need had the opportunity to use their own agent in the UK to find mechanics or agricultural labourers who would emigrate to the colony. The colonist would be given a bounty equal (or nearly) the expense of the person’s passage if and only if an Immigration Board in the colony deeded the immigrant suitable after examining them. This would eliminate those who were clearly of the wrong ages, or disabled, or unhealthy, and so on. They could bring out married couples under 30 (with their family), unmarried women 15-30 who come out with the consent of the settler or his agent under the protection of a married couple, as forming part of the family and destined to remain with it until such female be otherwise provided for, and unmarried male mechanics or farm servants aged 18-25, brought out by a settler, who at the same time brings an equal number of females, accompanying and attached to a family as before described. The government had no control with this scheme: the emigrants were selected by agents of the colonists and ships were engaged privately. The government role was limited to the Immigration Board who examined the new arrivals for suitability.

The other scheme which would run alongside the Bounty Scheme was the Government Scheme, which would account for a larger number of immigrants. Under this new scheme, Surgeon-Superintendents from convict ships who had knowledge of life in the colony and the needs of the colony, were sent from the colonies to select the immigrants. They would also accompany them back on the voyage. Payments which were close or equal to the cost of the voyage would be made for these immigrants.

Farewelling the Immigrant Ship St Vincent, 1844
(Illustrated London News, 13.4.1844)

These schemes were tweaked several times over the years to iron out problems that became apparent.

Before these schemes the government had brought out wives and children of convicts for free from 1817 onwards. This was a free passage, not assisted immigration. It also started well before 1828. The only other scheme that the colonial government was involved with before the schemes described above was the emigration of 50 girls from the Cork Foundling Hospital in 1831 on the convict ship Palembam in an attempt to redress the imbalance in numbers of male and female colonists. The Governors of the hospital provided the girls with their required outfits, and the colonial government paid all other costs.

The idea of using revenue from land sales was first proposed by Edward Gibbon Wakefield in 1829. Although South Australia was the only colony to adopt Wakefield's scheme in toto (which they did from ?), the idea of funding immigration through land sales was adopted by many states. But this was one year after the magical date of 1828.

The Australian Agricultural Company and the Van Diemen's Land Company brought out people to work for them from 1825, but these were indentured workers, not assisted immigrants.

John Dunmore Lang first brought out emigrants in 1831. They were allowed a free passage, but it was expected that they would repay the cost from their earnings in the colony.

So what about these State Archives collections "Assisted Immigrants Shipping List 1828-1896" and also a link to the "Bounty Immigrants Index 1828-1842"?  The former was compiled by Janet Reakes. The records, digital copies of which are on the Archives web site, are all written in the same hand and cover many ships, often having more than one ship on the same page. There is no indication where Janet got the information on these voyages from. I don't doubt for a minute that these people arrived on the ships that are nominated, but I can find no evidence that they were assisted in their immigration.

The second dataset is an index to the first, created by FamilySearch.

So, am I missing something? Did assisted immigration (or bounty immigration) start in 1828?  Or is 1831 or 1832 the earliest date we can claim?

Thursday, July 18, 2019

More on the Manning family - parents identified

I have previously written about my Manning ancestors from Rathdrum in Co. Wicklow, Ireland. (see the post here).   

I had identified that my ancestors, William & Susanna Manning, were married on 3 Aug 1842 at St Peter, Dublin, and had the following children (all except the first from the parish register of Ballinaclash):

·    Archibald, born about 1843 in Dunamore, Co. Wexford, moved to Australia, probably about 1864. Married Mary Catherine Dunne in 1871 in Echuca, Victoria. Died in an accident on the Murray river 11 Dec 1881.
·    Sarah, born 30 Nov 1844 at Ballinatone, bap 29 Nov 1846.
·    Richard, born 3 Jun 1845 at Ballinatone, bap 29 Nov 1846, buried 28 Nov 1862.
·    Maria, born 28 Mar 1848 at Ballinatone, bap 28 Nov 1852, married the Rev. Cassian Crotty 11 Nov 1876 in Madagascar, returned to Co. Wicklow, then to Nottinghamshire, then arrived in Australia in Jun 1887 and died 25 Jun 1920 in Melbourne, Victoria.
·    George, born 28 Jun 1850 at Ballinatone, bap 28 Nov 1852 at Ballinaclash, arrived in Victoria about 1863, married Betsey Barnes 28 Apr 1877 in Sandhurst, Victoria and died 11 Nov 1900 in Brunswick, Melbourne, Victoria. [N.B. Sandhurst is now called Bendigo]
·    Emily Josephine, born 5 Apr 1851 at Ballinatone, bap 28 Nov 1852 at Ballinaclash, married Edmund Manning (son of Abraham Manning & Catherine Saul Manning) 20 Sep 1876 at St Thomas, Dublin.  Came to Australia about 1877 and died in North Fitzroy, Melbourne, Victoria on 29 Aug 1892
·    Ambrose, born 27 Nov 1852 at Ballinatone, bap 28 Nov 1852 at Ballinaclash, emigrated to Victoria, possibly in 1879, died in Warracknbeul on 29 Jan 1930.
·    William, born 1 Nov 1854 at Ballinatone, bap 2 Nov 1854 at Ballinaclash and died 3 Nov 1854.
·    Robert, bap 1 Jan 1856 at Ballinaclash, arrived in Victoria about 1874, and married Annie Craig Jamieson 5 Feb 1884 in Carlton, Melbourne. By 1900 he was living in Western Australia. He married Madge Jamieson in 1923 in Sydney, and died in Claremont, Western Australia, on 29 Jun 1938.
·    William, bap 26 Aug 1857 at Ballinaclash, arrived in Australia about 1879 and died 9 May 1938 in Heidelburg, VIC.
·    Susanna, born 1 Nov 1859 at Ballinatone Lower, bap 8 Jan 1860 at Ballinaclash. Probably arrived in Victoria in 1883, and married William James Spiller on 5 Feb 1884 at Carlton. Died 13 August 1941 in East Malvern, Victoria.
·    Alfred, born 25 Feb 1862 at Ballinatone Lower, bap 3 Apr 1862 at Ballinaclash.
·    Edward, born 10 May 1865 at Ballinatone Lower, bap 26 Sep 1865 at Ballinaclash, drowned in Dublin in 1882.
·    Herbert, born 24 Jun 1869 at Ballinatone Lower, bap 11 Jul 1869 at Ballinaclash, married Florence Tamson Jamieson 8 Apr 1894 in Victoria.
The church of the parish of Ballinaclash, located at Ballinatone

When I wrote about the family before I had no idea when either William or Susanna were born or died. As both those names are common in the Manning families in Co. Wicklow, I could get no further with their ancestry.

When I went to Ireland in 2014 I had the chance to look at the registers of Rathdrum Church of Ireland, held by the Representative Church Body in Dublin, and extracted all the entries for the name Manning. I also checked the microfilms of the Ballinaclash register at the National Archives of Ireland. It was from the latter that I found the death/burial of the above children.  I also found the following two burials:

22 Oct 1872 - Susanna Manning, Ballinatone, age 50
11 Oct 1881 - William Manning, Ballyteigue (N of Rathdrum), 71 years.

This looked promising.  Could it be my Susanna & William? Even though the family was living at Ballinatone when most of their children were baptised, when their daughter Emily married in 1876 she was described as being "of Ballyteigue". It looked feasible that William might have moved to Ballyteigue (to live with some relative or other?) after his wife's death. Widowers at that time seemed to be incapable of looking after themselves.

When Emily died in Victorian in 1892 her death notice read:

MANNING -On the 29th inst., at her residence, Queen's-parade, Clifton Hill, Emily Josephine, beloved wife of Edmund Manning, and third daughter of the late William Manning, Ballyteigue, Co. Wicklow, Ireland ; aged 41 years. (The Argus, 30 Aug 1892 p1)

Again, there is the Ballytiegue reference.

That brings us to William's death.  He was definitely deceased by 1884 when his daughter Susanna married William James Spiller. We know that there was a William Manning buried at Ballinatone, no doubt with his wife, but there are no Manning headstones in that churchyard, so it is still only circumstancial and we have no absolute proof that they are the right people.

The next step was to get their death certificates.

Susanna' death certificate states that she died on 2 Oct 1872 at Ballinatone, that she was aged 50, a Farmer's wife, and she died of cancer of the womb. The informant was William Manning, Present at death, Ballinatone. No doubt, that was her husband, William.

The death certificate for William shows that he died on 9 Oct 1881 at Ballytague [sic]. He was a 71 year old widower, Farmer, and died of spasmodic asthma & bronchitis.  The informant was Archibald Manning, Brother of Greenane, present at death.

This surely refers to William Manning, bapt in Rathdrum 26 Aug 1810 son of "Archb'd & Mariah, Ballyteague".  That William had a brother Archibald of Greenane (born about 1814). That allowed me to build up the following family for William. William was the son of Archibald Manning, born about 1784. He married Maria Bates at Rathdrum on 21 Dec 1805.  There is no baptism for Archibald in the Rathdrum registers, so that became a dead end.

And what about Susanna?  Her age at death indicated that she was born about 1822, but there was no corresponding baptism in the Rathdrum Registers.  

My next breakthrough came from newspapers. The first was an announcement of William & Susanna's marriage:

"On the 3d instant, at St. Peter's Church, by the Rev. Dr. Porter, William Manning, Esq., of Rathdrum, to Susannah, only daughter of Richard Manning, Esq., of Corballis, near Rathdrum." (Warder and Dublin Weekly Mail, 6 Aug 1842, p7)

So Susanna was the daughter of Richard Manning. Another marriage announcement gave me Susanna's mother's name:

"On Thursday last, in Rathdrum Church, by the Rev. Mr. Powell, Rector of that Parish, Richard Manning, Esq. son of Thomas Manning, Esq of Corballis Castle, County of Wicklow, to the amiable Miss Sarah Manning, eldest daughter of Robert Manning, Esq of Mount Corballis, near Rathdrum." (Saunders's News-letter and Daily Advertiser, Thursday 24 Aug 1820).

Without a baptism for Archibald (father of William) or Richard (son of Thomas) more work needed to be done. Likewise, more work needs to be done to verify which Robert is Sarah's father.

Tuesday, July 2, 2019

I'm getting excited about RootsTech London

I have been to RootsTech in Salt Lake City several times, but I am particularly excited about the London RootsTech conference. Why? Because of some of the sessions and speakers.

David Rencher from FamilySearch is talking on Irish Estate Land and Property Records. I heard him speak in Sydney a couple of months ago and he is a good speaker, and I learnt some little known facts from him.  Myko Clelland from Findmypast is also a good speaker and I have highlighted several of his talks (Beyond the British Census, To have and to Hold: Understanding British Marriage Records and Scottish Genealogy: Beyond the Basics) in my list of sessions that interest me. And there are several speakers I am aware of but have not heard speak. This will be a fantastic opportunity to do so.

David Rencher in Sydney
While there is always a certain amount of content relating to the British Isles at the Salt Lake City conferences, there will  be far more at the London conference, which is important for me as I have no US ancestry: all my ancestors are from England, Ireland or Scotland (and my husband also has Isle of Man and Jersey). I have looked at the list of sessions and in every time slot there are multiple ones that interest me in each of them.  Topics covered that interest me include workhouse records, rural ancestors, Irish genealogy, parish records and nonconformist records to name just a few. And of course, there are many sessions on DNA.

One other thing I noticed was that there were lots of sessions on scanning photos, negatives and film and various other sessions relating to photos and doing short video interviews.  I think some of those will be very interesting.

I have been told that many British people attending family history shows are primarily interested in the exhibitors, and consider the talks as a side attraction and only attend one or two of them. If so, that is a pity as they are missing out on opportunities to hear fantastic lectures. At family history conferences here in Australia it is definitely the lectures that are the key attraction. Not to say that exhibitors are not of interest, but the talks are the main reason for attending. And unlike the old Who Do You Think You Are? Live, all these lectures are included in the one price at RootsTech. You do not have to pay any extra.

Expo Hall at RootsTech in Salt Lake City
So perhaps the strategy is to consider RootsTech as a conference, not just a family history show.

And as well as the formal lectures, there will be other sessions in the Exhibition Hall. The demo theatre will have an interesting program, though it has not yet been published, and many of the major vendors will have scheduled sessions at their booths.

But it's not just commercial companies that you will find in the Exhibition Hall. Many local family history societies are booking a stand as they are eligible for a very special rate for the show.

If I have managed to spark your interest, or if you had already decided you were going, keep an eye on this blog for a chance to win a free 3-day pass to RootsTech London 2019. If you have already purchased a ticket and you win my competition, you will get a full refund of your purchase money, so go ahead and register now, while early bird pricing is still in force.

Disclaimer: As a Rootstech Ambassador I receive complimentary admission to the event, invitations to some extra events and dinners and a free registration to give to one of my readers. I bear the cost of my return airfares from Australia and pay for my accommodation and meals.